Spinal Muscular Atrophy: Effects on Home, School, and Leisure

Spinal Muscular Atrophy: Effects on Home, School, and Leisure

Those with spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) face psychological and social challenges that often hinder quality of life.1 Even those who are able to live in their homes and participate in school, employment, and leisure activities are burdened with challenges related to...
Assistive Devices and Equipment in Spinal Muscular Atrophy: Braces

Assistive Devices and Equipment in Spinal Muscular Atrophy: Braces

Braces are one amongst a number of rehabilitation techniques that are used in those with neuromuscular disorders like spinal muscular atrophy (SMA).1 Their effectiveness is thought to vary depending on the individual case. Children with SMA may have spinal braces as...
Pain Management in Spinal Muscular Atrophy

Pain Management in Spinal Muscular Atrophy

Increased pain is significantly associated with lower levels of health, social function, and vitality.1 The results of studies on animal models of neuropathic pain suggest that the abnormal excitability of dorsal horn neurons in spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) may lead...
Spinal Muscular Atrophy: Scoliosis

Spinal Muscular Atrophy: Scoliosis

Scoliosis is an early orthopedic complication of Spinal Muscular Atrophy (SMA).1 The estimated incidence of scoliosis in SMA types 1 and 2 ranges from 60-90%2 and is approximately 50% in SMA type 3.3 The etiology of scoliosis in SMA is weakness throughout the muscles...
Spinal Muscular Atrophy: Chewing and Swallowing Problems

Spinal Muscular Atrophy: Chewing and Swallowing Problems

Patients with Spinal Muscular Atrophy (SMA) types 2 and 3 frequently report weakness of the muscles of mastication and bulbar impairment leading to chewing and swallowing issues.1 Patients with SMA type 1 have such significant bulbar weakness that precludes safe...
Spinal Muscular Atrophy: Pancreatic Dysfunction

Spinal Muscular Atrophy: Pancreatic Dysfunction

Traditionally, the pathology of Spinal Muscular Atrophy (SMA) was thought to be entirely confined to the anterior horn cells of the spinal cord.1 As more is known about the natural history of SMA, other cell types inside and outside the central nervous system appear...